He said that we could
learn much about ourselves by examining our thoughts and feelings. Later this
thought was called, introspection, “looking within”.
428-348 or 347 B.C.
Recorded his teacher’s
dedicated to Socrates (his teacher) and his way of thinking, he also wrote the Apology of Socrates.
Outlined laws of
Associationism: When one experience comes up
and another comes up the same way, you think the next experience is going to be
He believed that people weren’t possessed by
demons but rather they had such abnormalities in the brain.
1880-1943, 1886-1941, 1887-1967
Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that
looks at the human mind and behavior as a whole.
You see a shape or form as it appears on the
page rather than realizing the shape may be smaller or larger than it actually
He was the father of psychodynamic thinking and
Assumed that most of what exists in an
individual’s mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges,
He said people learn in the same way animals
do. He showed that when an animal is reinforced, or rewarded, for performing an
action, it is more likely to perform that action in the future.
Father of structuralism and experimental
psychology. He was concerned with discovering the basic elements of
Father of functionalism, concerned with how
mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment.
Father of behaviorism, “Does it seem absurd to
try to place yourself in the mind of a rat?”
Built on principles of associationism, he
theorized that knowledge is not inborn but is learned from experience.