Islamic Civilization 6th-15th Centuries
These are the major events that I believe are the most important and significant to Islam as a religion and the civilization uprise and downfall. This civilization, unlike the great civilizations of Rome and Egypt, did not last terribly long. Similarly though, it was based on politics and religion, but its downfall was it's lack of strong leadership (after the death of Muhammad) to keep everything united. It did, however, spread further than any civilization before it, probably due to its religious message (and taxing and/or raiding non-believers) of salvation and forgiveness. Islam continues to grow quickly in followers and converts.